The Glock 22 (fullsize model) has a 4.49" barrel. Your Glock 23 (midsize) has a 4.02" barrel.
I would go with the regular Gold Dot in 124gr in either standard pressure or +P as loaded by the factory - If you're set on Gold Dot. Other good choices include the HST, Golden Saber, and Ranger offerings.
I've found in my limited testing that speed, to a point, hurts penetration with the Gold Dot load. For example, the 9mm Gold Dot as loaded by Black Hills at around 1250-1300fps had limited penetration in water. Good expansion, but I believe it expanded too soon and created a parachute effect.
If you have a place to shoot water jugs, I'd highly recommend doing so. Work out your own salvation, as they say.
I don't see you going wrong with either loading, but as I said, I believe the standard Gold Dot in either standard pressure or +P would be the way to go here.
Start looking at the "short barrel" version when you get something the size of a PPK - like a baby Glock. In .40 this would be a Glock 27 with a 3.46" barrel.